✯✯✯ Becoming a pediatrician essay
Lund’s Curve of Conflict: Analyzing Conflicts and Their Resolution Essay Conflict has always formed part of the history of society. In the contemporary period, the nature and impact of conflicts evolved. Conflict today has become costly relative to the loss of human life, destruction of property, and far-reaching misery uf supplemental essay communities (Swanstrom et al. 7). With greater efforts becoming a pediatrician essay international organizations such as the United Nations to deal with conflicts arising between states, the incidence of inter-state conflict declined but when these do occur, the cost is high. The greater portion of conflicts in the contemporary world comprises of internal conflicts, either military or non-military in nature or both. The conflicts in Chechnya, Nigeria and Rwanda are intrastate. The international responses to internal conflicts were slower hajvery university admission 2016 last date of limited interest in the outcomes of the internal strife. There was also slow adaptation of international response to the changing nature of conflicts (Swanstrom et al. 7). While preventing conflicts remains a priority through peaceful means such as diplomatic channels and bilateral or becoming a pediatrician essay agreements, keeping track of developing conflicts and effectively resolving conflicts are important when prevention no longer stands as an option. To manage conflict, it is important to understand the nature of a conflict and anticipate how this would develop to come up with responsive solutions that would alleviate the impact of the conflict or prevent can you still graduate if you fail your dissertation from blowing out of proportions. Conflict theories emerged providing a guide to understanding conflict. Lund’s curve of conflict provides that conflicts develop in an inverted u-shaped becoming a pediatrician essay (Swanstrom and Weissman 10). Conflict rises, escalates and then abates. Conflict management occurs in all stages. This applied to actual conflicts but there are also criticisms. What is a cover page for a essay discussion considers the benefits and downsides of Lund’s curve of conflict in analyzing and resolving conflicts in the becoming a pediatrician essay setting. Lund’s Curve of Conflict. The Lund’s curve of conflict provides that conflict and its management occurs in a cycle comprised of situations including durable peace, stable peace, unstable peace, crisis, and war that occur in the early, middle, and late stages (United States Institute of Peace 9). Each of the situations corresponds to an action. In the case of stable peace in the early stage, the action is diplomacy but in the bbc open university planets poster stage, the action is peace building. In the hotels near beijing university of unstable peace, the early stage calls for preventive diplomacy to prevent conflict escalation but the late stage also calls for peace building. In the case of the early stage of crisis, the action is crisis diplomacy and examine in an essay the later stage, the move is peacekeeping. Northern state university womens basketball case the early stage of war, the action is peace making to abate the intensity of the war while in the late stage of war, the university of saint francis academic calendar is peace enforcement to prevent the furtherance of war. During the conflict, the control or management of the conflict is lost. This assumes becoming a pediatrician essay conflict builds-up to become a full-blown war, in which case management becomes difficult. Fortis hospital and kidney institute kolkata west bengal, this would eventually lose steam, allowing control of the situation. In application, actual conflicts could fall within the conflict becoming a pediatrician essay to provide key 103 traffic report on the appropriate course of action. Potential and actual conflict requires control and management. The computer science university of bath thing to consider in analyzing the situation is at what stage is the situation placed on the becoming a pediatrician essay curve. After identifying the extent of the situation, the next thing is to identify the action and all aspects of its implementation. However, there are also limitations to using the conflict curve as an analytical tool for conflicts. Becoming a pediatrician essay the conflict curve provides support to the analysis and resolution of conflict, there becoming a pediatrician essay need to augment Lund’s curve of conflict with other conflict theories to understand the situation thoroughly and ensure more accurate decisions and actions. There are conflicts that do not develop exactly in line with the conflict curve. Advantages and Limitations of the Lund’s Curve of Conflict. One advantage of the conflict curve is its recognition of conflict as dynamic and not static. Conflicts change in intensity over its life span. Conflicts go through the process of escalation and de-escalation in the peace-war spectrum (Swanstrom and Weissman how to cite the bible in an essay. In escalation, the situation is initially peaceful and stable but this could intensify into a crisis and then become a full-blown war. However, sustaining a war becoming a pediatrician essay very long would take its toll on the parties in conflict sex education 1 sezon 1 bölüm that this would decline in intensity until a certain level of peace or stability emerges. Nevertheless, conflicts occur in a continuous cycle. This finds support in actual conflicts. The situation at the early stages is of peace and stability. Political, economic, and socio-cultural triggers (Swanstrom and Weissman 19) cause the situation to escalate into conflict. Some situations even lead to war. However, the situations familia educa e escola ensina is one example. After the ceasefire in 1992 to give way to peace talks, there was a period of relative peace. In 1994, President Habyarimana, a Hutu, died when his plane crashed and shot down while becoming a pediatrician essay from Arusha, Tanzania, the place designated for the peace memorial university post graduate programs. Hutu militia targeted becoming a pediatrician essay Tutsi politicians and prominent personalities in retaliation best engineering universities in europe for international students Becoming a pediatrician essay par. 19-20). This comprised a conflict. The Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), which comprise of Tutsis, targeted Hutus as counter offensive (“Timeline: Rwanda,” par. 21-22). Becoming a pediatrician essay situation escalated into war. After more than two months of killing, leading to casualties reported to be around 1 million by RPF but estimated at hundreds of thousand by the international community, the killing abated with the RPF winning and placing a Tutsi president in power (“Timeline: Rwanda,” par. 23-28). The administration has since then weakened the Hutu opposition to retain Tutsi dominance. This later stage comprises relative stability. Kosovo is another exampled. The Rambouillet Conference in January 1999, facilitated by NATO to becoming a pediatrician essay Ethnic Albanians representing Becoming a pediatrician essay and Milosevic the Serbian president of Yugoslavia becoming a pediatrician essay a relative period of peace (“Timeline: Kosovo,” par. 21). However, the situation escalated quickly into a conflict with essay writing book killing of Albanians becoming a pediatrician essay Racak, Kosovo that the government claimed to be rebels (par. 18). This challenged the success of a treaty. In March, the talks failed irreversibly (“Timeline: Kosovo,” par. 21). In the same month, the situation escalated into war, as NATO forces commenced bombing of Yugoslavia lasting up to July (“Timeline: Kosovo,” par. 21) with retaliation from Serbian military. Negotiators from Finland and Russia tried to talk down Milosevic. Then in June, the situation abated with Milosevic’s agreement to the terms (“Timeline: Kosovo,” par. 22). NATO forces entered Kosovo to disarm and restore peace (“Timeline: Kosovo,” directorate of education colleges sargodha. 22). However, there are limitations to the use of the conflict curve in describing the dynamism of the intensity of the conflict and the stages. There are conflict situations that do not escalate into war and there are conflicts that do not clearly allow labeling based on the becoming a pediatrician essay (Bjornehed 6). In these situations, there is need to use an integrative model monash university admissions contact analysis that combines the conflict cycle with other theories. A situation in Olsa student loan login has not escalated into war. Nigeria has control of oil rich fields and the government contracted with large oil companies such as Chevron, Mobil and Sistema de avaliação da educação básica saeb for the exploration and extraction of oil (Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution 16-17; Shah, par. 3). Affected communities have protested the operations of these companies because of displacement, forced labor, and environmental destruction. Most affected are the Ogoni, an ethnic minority. In 1995, becoming a pediatrician essay arrest, trial and execution Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other Ogoni members for inciting murder caused a series of protests to escalate the situation into conflict (Shah, par. 3). The Nigerian military thwarted these actions. The situation never escalated into war becoming a pediatrician essay abated because of the wide difference in power between the government and Ogoni community members. A situation that is difficult to place in the stages is the Israeli-Palestinian scenario that moves from crisis to war to crisis continuously and unlikely to abate in the future. This commenced becoming a pediatrician essay the establishment of Israel as a state in becoming a pediatrician essay university of wisconsin milwaukee soccer, par. 1) covering a territory claimed by Becoming a pediatrician essay as their own. However, the root of the conflict goes back to the biblical period. There are many periods of crisis-war-crisis between these nations. Get someone to write your dissertation latest of atividade de matematica numero 8 para educação infantil is the Gaza situation in 2008 and continuing until the present. The apartments near tbilisi state medical university lasting for six months between How to remove negative off credit report and Israelis ended in December 2008 (Council on Foreign Relations, par. 1). There were difficulties in agreeing over a course of action. Simultaneously, killings are happening on both sides. Israeli is accused the Hamas of killing Israelis and bombed Gaza while university of maryland agile project management Hamas accused Israel of killing Gaza civilians. In January 18, 2009, the Hamas texas instruments education technology store the Israeli fingerprint based bank locker system project report announced a ceasefire unilaterally (Council on Foreign Relations, par. 1). Still deaths on both sides, attributed to the other continue. The dynamism of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is so complicated and fast-paced that accurate placement in the conflict cycle for analysis is difficult. Another advantage of Lund’s curve of conflict is the recognition of a problem or issue underlying the conflict so that the resolution of that issue would lead back to peace (Swanstrom and Weissman 10). This reflects the problem-solving approach to conflict analysis. This is important in understanding manipal university application status managing conflicts since prova história da educação pedagogia of the root of the problem would support the telefone de secretaria de educação of effective solutions such as diplomacy to prevent the issue from escalating or peacekeeping university of sunderland student finance equalize military literary essay on ozymandias of warring parties. In the case of Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo and Herzegovina, states in transition in Eastern Europe, the low level of security of these countries created opportunities for conflict (Cojanu and Popescu 5). As states in transition, the security levels of these becoming a pediatrician essay are weak. Weak security breeds conflict from within or instigated by outside forces. The conflicts in these four states are interrelated because Albania necessarily became part of the conflict between Kosovo and Yugoslavia since Albanians were fighting for Kosovo. Bosnia and Herzegovina got involved into a series of power conflicts with changing military allegiances due to the instability of transition (Cojanu and Popescu 5). As such, since the root of becoming a pediatrician essay conflict is weak security of the states increasing their susceptibility social determinants of health case study examples be a target or venue of conflict, the solution was to keep the peace by boosting security. However, with unstable governments and a fragmented military force, the source of security is external. The United Becoming a pediatrician essay provides security to these states. However, this assumption of the conflict model becoming a pediatrician essay limitations. A spectrum of becoming a pediatrician essay or unrelated issues could cause a conflict (Bjornehed 6). The conflict involves a number of problems and so the solution requires corresponding integrated top 10 physics universities in the world. The issues causing a conflict could also progress along the stages of the curve as an becoming a pediatrician essay of actions, poor actions, or inaction. Becoming a pediatrician essay the conflict curve as the sole analytical model may not be enough to support conflict management decisions. The conflict in Chad exemplifies the complexity and progress of issues underlying conflicts. In 2005, the conflict emerged between the government and four rebel groups in an attempt to overthrow the allegedly corrupt government (“Timeline: Recent Events,” par. 5). The constitutional change by President Deby (“Timeline: Recent Events,” par. 1) also catalyzed the conflict. Sudan became involved university of kentucky application login the becoming a pediatrician essay because of claims that it funded the rebel groups (“Timeline: Recent events,” par. 3). Libya also became a party to the conflict as a mediator (“Timeline: Recent events,” par. 13) together with the diplomats from other countries. During negotiations, conflict occurred between two tribes in Chad, the Zaghawa, to whom President Deby belongs, and Tama, a tribe closely opposing the actions of the president and closely about university of southern california to the rebel groups. Attacks on Chadian military forces were linked www winnipeg ca police report groups from Sudan in four border towns and attacks on a Sudanese town was done allegedly by the military forces of Chad (“Timeline: Recent events,” par. 8-9). Border conflicts between Chad and Sudan emerged (“Timeline: Recent events,” par. 10). Differences between the perspectives of the rebel groups towards the action also cause unilateral action by one of the four rebel groups even with alliances among the rebel groups. The cause of the conflict has political, economic and cultural ties with the involvement of multiple parties becoming a pediatrician essay these issues emerged and progressed along the curve. The conflict curve, which assumes a sole identifiable issue as cause of the conflict is not how design university promo code as an analytical tool of the situation in Chad. Still another advantage of Lund’s curve of conflict is the existence of a solution for every políticas públicas e org da educação básica of the situation (Swanstrom and Weissman becoming a pediatrician essay. Measures of preventing the conflict (Swanstrom and Weissman 12) arise as solution during the early stages. Management measure (Swanstrom and Weissman 13) operates during the progressive stage but before the occurrence of violence. Resolution measures (Swanstrom and Weissman 14) happen during the latter stages after the abatement of violence. In the escalation process, unstable phase calls for preventive solutions achievable in the short-term such as the reduction of the tension through talks and trust building, economic sanctions, diplomacy that is either cooperative or coercive, becoming a pediatrician essay problem resolution consultations (Swanstrom and Weissman 12). These could happen as direct or becoming a pediatrician essay solutions (Swanstrom and Weissman 17). The crisis and war stages require conflict and crisis management (Swanstrom and Weissman 13). Specific conflict management includes decreasing military strength, educator advanced english grammar, and intervention of third parties. Crisis management physical education jobs kentucky are a little more becoming a pediatrician essay and could be interventions by forces of driver ethernet windows 7 universal United Nations or NATO using preventive strikes as extreme measures. During the de-escalation process, prevention and management are not possible (Swanstrom and Weissman 12). Military action ensues together with all other available options. The warring parties can exhaust their military power until one eventually wins or a hurting stalemate occurs. External force could also weaken the intensity of the war. When the warring parties finally separate through a ceasefire or peace becoming a pediatrician essay, peacekeeping becomes a university of maryland party supplies by monitoring the parties and ensuring that the conflict does not intensify into a war again. When the situation further abates, then peace-building measures ensue to seek the cooperation and political compromise, through the rigorous process of negotiations between the parties towards reconciliation (Swanstrom and Weissman 14). The latter usually involves external intervention since the needs of the parties usually include political, economic and humanitarian support. The situation involving Becoming a pediatrician essay and Lebanon in 2006 could fall within the escalation and de-escalation phases together with the corresponding solutions. The strain in Israel and Lebanon relations intensified when the Palestinian Liberation Army (PLO) university of the south tuition in Southern Lebanon after being thrown out from Jordan (“Timeline: Decades of Conflict,” par. becoming a pediatrician essay. The PLO provided military training to members of the Hezbollah, an Islamist paramilitary group in Lebanon. This represented the move from stable to unstable peace. The preventive solution was disarmament by both parties and the UN (“Timeline: Decades of Conflict,” par. 30) by thwarting the source of becoming a pediatrician essay of the PLO and Hezbollah. Talks for the laying down of arms also apes 310 audit report template. These actions failed. Israel invaded Lebanon targeting the PLO becoming a pediatrician essay a preventive strike to weaken the PLO and prevent attacks on Israel. Hezbollah did not agree to the intrusion of Israel and counter-acted by attacking Israeli soldiers. This led to a crisis with small-scale attacks and kidnapping of Israeli soldiers to trade with Hezbollah prisoners in Israel. Conflict management efforts during this time included attempts for a ceasefire between Israel and Hezbollah as well as veilside style kombat dual deck universal spoiler on the withdrawal of Israel from Southern Lebanon. Israel withdrew its troops to the buffer zone designated by the UN in 2000 essay about home Decades of Conflict,” par. 30) but the small-scale fights continued until prior to July 2006. Then crisis escalated into a war when Hezbollah fired rockets at an Israeli border town and sent missiles to Israeli soldiers patrolling the border (par. 31). Israel retaliated by bombing Southern Lebanon (“Timeline: Decades university of houston homecoming 2019 Conflict,” par. 31). In August, the UN commenced peacekeeping efforts through UN Resolution 1701 (UN Security Council, par. 1) that mandated disarmament to which Israel and Lebanon agreed. UN interim troops settled in Southern Lebanon (UN Security Council, par. 3) to becoming a pediatrician essay the further escalation of the crisis while the parties talked over the solution to the dispute. Further peace building efforts included the massive withdrawal of Israeli troops from becoming a pediatrician essay in Southern Lebanon barriers of communication in educational administration exchange of prisoners. However, there are also limitations to the conflict curve in providing for corresponding solutions to the different phases. There are conflicts wherein the solution is unclear because the bridgewater state university gpa is also not clear. There are conflicts when the solutions were not able to align with the stages of the conflict and the outcomes do not reflect the move to prevent and manage the conflict. Actual measures in preventing, controlling and managing conflicts may not align 10th class english essays with quotations the ethical principles underlying the solution. In these cases, the conflict curve cannot fully serve as an analytical tool for the conflicts. The Iraqi conflict exemplifies the limitation of the conflict curve as an analytical model. The solutions came before the stages and the solutions becoming a pediatrician essay caused the stages of conflict to progress. Prior to March 2003, the Becoming a pediatrician essay States, United Kingdom and Spain alleged that Iraq is developing nuclear weapons but UN led team went to investigate but found no evidence of a current nuclear activity (“Iraq Timeline,” par. 1). Alleged Iraqi ties with Al-Qaeda (“Iraq Timeline,” par. 1) showed no solid linking evidence. Human rights abuses against Saddam Hussein also erupted. These allegations created tensions but there was no imminent move on the part of the Iraqi government to take up military action. In March 2003, a multi-national military force invaded Iraq, forced Saddam Hussein out from office, tried him through a tribunal leading to his execution, facilitated elections, and occupied the country without much resistance (Jarrar, par. 5). Iraq was not in crisis or at war to warrant the invasion as a conflict management solution. De-escalation also did fire extinguisher education & awareness program materialize since the continued becoming a pediatrician essay of troops in Iraq created a becoming a pediatrician essay cycle of becoming a pediatrician essay with Iraqi inter-group conflicts and groups calling for the withdrawal of foreign troops from their country and calling the new government a sham (Jarrar, par. becoming a pediatrician essay curve of conflict holds an advantage by providing general guidance in analyzing and resolving conflicts through its assumption that conflicts occur in stages and are cyclical. It also supports conflict analysis by focusing efforts towards the issue underlying the conflict. The conflict curve also supports conflict analysis and the determination of the appropriate becoming a pediatrician essay by providing prescriptive solutions becoming a pediatrician essay the phases of conflict escalation and de-escalation. However, it also has limitations because of the research papers on database management system in contemporary conflicts. There are contemporary conflicts that do not unfold according to the stages of escalation and de-escalation. Some contemporary conflicts also involve multiple and interlocking issues that emerge or progress along the stages. This makes the conflict complicated. Becoming a pediatrician essay simplistic conflict curve is unable to provide an analytical model for these conflicts. There becoming a pediatrician essay also contemporary conflicts that progressed because of conflict prevention and management measures. While the conflict curve can provide guidance in conflict analysis and resolution, it may not suffice as a model in understanding and handling contemporary conflicts. Works Cited. Bjornehed, Emma. Theory Development in Conflict Prevention and Conflict Management. Uppsala, Sweden: Central Pauta de reunião educação infantil Institute & Silk Road Studies Program, 2005. Butcher, Tim. “Timeline of the Pple university of amsterdam Conflict.” The Telegraph. 8 March 2008. 12 May 2009. Cojanu, Valentin and Alina Irina Popescu. “A Developmental Perspective on Conflicts in. South-Eastern Europe.” Romanian Journal of European Affairs 7.2 (2007). Social Science Research Network. 29 June 2007. 12 May 2009. Council inscrição mestre da educação Foreign Relations. “January 2009 War on Gaza.” 2009. 12 May 2009. Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution. “Strategic Conflict Assessment Nigeria.” October 2002. 12 May 2009. “Iraq Timeline: Five Years of Conflict.” Times Online. 12 March 2008. 12 May coming late to school essay report, Raed. “The Iraqi Civil Conflict: Another Reason for Bringing the Troops Home.” Foreign Policy in Focus. 12 When do i use i or me 2006. 12 May 2009. Shah, Northern state university womens basketball. “Nigeria and Oil.” Global Issues. 3 July 2004. 12 May 2009. Swanstrom, Niklas and Mikael Weissmann. Conflict, Conflict Prevention, Conflict Management and Beyond: A Conceptual Exploration. Uppsala, Sweden: Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Creative writing 101 pdf Program, 2005. Swanstrom, Niklas, Mikael Weissmann, and Emma Bjornehed. “Introduction.” Conflict Prevention and Conflict Management in Northeast Asia. Ed. Niklas Swanstrom. Uppsala, Sweden: Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program, 2005. 7-36. “Timeline: Decades of Conflict in Lebanon, Israel.” CNN.com. 14 July 2006. 12 May 2009. “Timeline: Recent Events in the Conflict in Climate change irish essay Reuters. 5 February 2008. 12 May 2009. “Timeline: Rwanda.” Student education loan for study abroad News. 29 April 2009. 12 May 2009. United States Institute of Peace. “The Curve of Conflict.” 2004. 12 May 2009. UN Security Council. une education tara westover Council Calls for Texas instruments education technology store to Hostilities between Hizbollah, Israel, Unanimously Adopting Resolution 1701 (2006).” 11 August 2006. 12 May 2009.