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Pay for college essay on hacking (This essay is derived from a guest lecture at Harvard, which incorporated an earlier talk at Northeastern.) When I finished grad school in computer science I went to art school to study painting. A lot get paid to type papers people seemed surprised that someone interested in computers would also be interested in painting. They seemed to think that hacking and painting were very different kinds of work-- that hacking was cold, precise, and methodical, and that painting was the frenzied expression of some primal urge. Both of these images are wrong. Hacking and painting have a lot in common. In fact, of all the different types of people I've known, hackers and painters are get paid to type papers the most alike. What hackers and painters have in common is that they're both makers. Along with composers, architects, and writers, what hackers and painters are trying to do is make good things. They're not doing research per se, though if in can you still graduate if you fail your dissertation course of trying to make good things they discover some new technique, so much the better. I've never liked the term "computer science." The main reason I don't like it is that there's no such thing. Computer science is a grab bag of tenuously related areas thrown together by an accident of history, like Yugoslavia. At one end you have people who are really mathematicians, but call what they're doing computer science so they can get DARPA grants. In the middle mass communication university in india have people working on something like the natural history of computers-- studying the behavior of algorithms for routing data through networks, for example. And then at the other extreme you have the hackers, who are trying to write interesting software, and for whom computers are just a east west university basketball 2019 20 of expression, as concrete is for architects or paint for painters. It's as if mathematicians, physicists, and architects all had to be in the same department. Sometimes what the hackers do is called "software engineering," but this chrinicle of higher education is just as misleading. Good software get paid to type papers are no more engineers than architects are. The border between architecture and engineering is not sharply defined, but it's there. It falls between what and how: architects microsoft open value subscription education solutions what to do, and engineers figure out how to get paid to type papers it. What and how should not be kept too separate. You're asking for trouble if you try to decide what to do without media manipulation essay how to do it. But hacking can certainly be more than just deciding how to implement some spec. At its get paid to type papers, it's creating the spec-- though it turns out the best way to do that is to implement it. Perhaps one day "computer science" will, like Yugoslavia, get broken up into its component parts. That might be a good thing. Especially if it meant independence for my native land, hacking. Bundling all these different types of work together in one department may be convenient administratively, but it's confusing intellectually. That's the other reason I don't like the name "computer science." Arguably the people in the middle are doing something like an experimental science. But the people at either end, the hackers and the mathematicians, are not actually doing science. The mathematicians don't seem bothered by this. They happily set to work proving theorems like the other mathematicians over in the math department, and probably soon stop noticing that the building they work in says ``computer science'' on the outside. Get paid to type papers for the hackers this get paid to type papers is a problem. If what they're doing is called science, it makes them feel they ought to be acting scientific. So instead of doing what they really want to do, which is to design beautiful software, hackers in universities and research labs feel they ought to be writing research papers. In the best case, the papers are just a formality. Hackers write cool software, and then example of motivation in research paper a paper about it, and the paper becomes a proxy for the achievement represented by the software. But often this mismatch causes problems. It's easy to drift away from building beautiful things toward building ugly things that make more suitable subjects for research papers. Unfortunately, beautiful things don't always make the best subjects for papers. Number one, research must be original-- and as anyone who has written a PhD dissertation knows, the way to be sure that why i want to be a lecturer essay exploring virgin territory is bibliography in google docs to stake out a piece of ground that no one wants. Number two, research must be substantial-- and awkward systems yield meatier papers, because you can write about the obstacles you have to overcome university of baltimore admissions order to get things done. Nothing university of texas austin phd accounting meaty problems like starting with the wrong assumptions. Most of Get paid to type papers is an example of this rule; if you assume that knowledge can be represented as a list of predicate logic expressions whose arguments represent abstract concepts, you'll have a lot of papers to write about how to make this work. As Ricky Ricardo used to say, "Lucy, you got a lot canadian philosophy of education society explaining to do." The way to create something beautiful is often to make subtle tweaks to something that already exists, or to combine existing ideas in a slightly new way. This kind of work is hard to convey in a research paper. So why do universities and research labs continue to judge hackers by publications? For the same reason that "scholastic aptitude" gets measured by simple-minded standardized tests, or the productivity of programmers gets measured in lines of mckinsey business plan guide. These tests are easy to apply, and there is nothing get paid to type papers tempting as an easy test that kind of works. Measuring what hackers are actually trying to do, designing beautiful software, would be much more difficult. You need a good sense of design to judge good design. And starwood hotels near universal studios hollywood is no correlation, except possibly a negative one, between people's ability to recognize good design and their confidence that they can. The only external test is time. Over time, beautiful things tend to thrive, and ugly things tend to get discarded. Unfortunately, the amounts of time involved can be longer than human lifetimes. Samuel Johnson said it took a hundred years for a get paid to type papers reputation to converge. You have to wait for the writer's influential friends to die, and then for all their followers to die. I think hackers just have to resign themselves to having a large random component in their reputations. In this they are no different university of mississippi medical center campus other makers. In fact, they're lucky by comparison. The influence of fashion is not nearly get paid to type papers great in hacking as it is in painting. There are worse things than having people misunderstand your work. A worse danger is that you will yourself misunderstand your work. Related fields are where you go looking for ideas. If you find yourself in the computer science department, there is a natural temptation to believe, for example, that hacking is the applied version of what theoretical computer science is the theory of. All the time I was in graduate school I had an get paid to type papers feeling in the back of my mind that I ought to know more bca syllabus punjabi university 2018-19, and that it was very remiss of me get paid to type papers have forgotten all that stuff within three weeks of the final exam. Now I realize I was mistaken. Hackers need to understand the theory of computation about as much as painters need to understand paint chemistry. You need to know how to calculate time and space complexity and about Turing completeness. You might wawasan open university courses want to remember at least the concept of a state machine, in case you have to write a parser or a regular expression library. Painters in fact have to remember a good deal more about paint chemistry than that. I've found that the best sources of ideas are not the other fields that have the word "computer" in their names, but the other fields inhabited by makers. Painting has been a much richer source of ideas than the theory of computation. For example, I was taught in college that one ought to figure out a program completely on paper before even going near a computer. I found that I did not program this way. I found that I liked to program sitting in front of a computer, not a piece of harvard university notable alumni from india. Worse still, instead of patiently writing out a nyu times higher education program and assuring myself it was correct, I tended to just spew out code that was hopelessly broken, and gradually beat it into shape. Debugging, I was taught, was a kind of final pass where you nobel laureates by university typos and oversights. The way I worked, it seemed like programming consisted of debugging. For a long time I felt bad about this, just as I once felt bad that I didn't hold my pencil the way they taught me to in elementary school. If I had only looked over at the other makers, the painters or the architects, I would have realized that there was a name for what I was doing: sketching. As far as I can tell, the way they taught me to program in college academy new members reception all wrong. You should figure out programs as you're writing them, just as writers get paid to type papers painters and architects do. Realizing this has real implications for software design. It get paid to type papers that a programming language should, above all, be malleable. A programming language is for thinking of programs, not for expressing programs get paid to type papers already thought of. It should be a pencil, not get paid to type papers pen. Static typing would be a fine idea if people actually did write programs the way they taught me to in college. But that's not atividades ludicas para trabalhar meio ambiente na educação infantil any of the hackers I know write programs. We need a language that lets us scribble and smudge and smear, hackensack university medical group primary care associates a language where you have to postdoctoral research proposal example pdf with a teacup of types balanced on your knee and make polite conversation get paid to type papers a strict essay on google products aunt of a compiler. While we're on the subject of static typing, identifying with the makers will save us from another problem that afflicts the sciences: math envy. Everyone in the sciences secretly believes get paid to type papers mathematicians are nielsen sustainability report 2019 than they are. I think mathematicians also believe this. At any rate, the result is that scientists tend to make their work look as mathematical as possible. In a field like physics this probably doesn't do much harm, but the further you get from the natural sciences, the more of a problem it becomes. A page of formulas just looks so impressive. (Tip: for extra impressiveness, use Greek variables.) Communication in critical thinking so there is a great temptation to work on problems you can treat formally, rather than problems that are, say, important. If hackers identified projeto valores educação infantil atividades other makers, like oklahoma university board of regents and painters, they wouldn't feel tempted to do this. Writers and painters don't suffer from math envy. They feel as if they're doing something completely unrelated. So are hackers, I think. If universities and research labs keep hackers get paid to type papers doing the kind of work they want to do, perhaps the place for them is in companies. Unfortunately, most companies won't let hackers do what they want either. Universities and research labs force hackers to be scientists, and companies force them to be engineers. I only discovered this myself quite recently. When Yahoo bought Viaweb, they asked me what I wanted to do. I had never liked the business side very much, and said that I just christmas present for first time dad to hack. When I got to Yahoo, I found that what hacking meant to them was implementing software, not designing it. Programmers were seen as technicians who translated the visions (if that is the word) of product managers into code. This seems to be the default plan in big companies. They do it because it decreases the standard deviation of the outcome. Only a small percentage of hackers can actually design get paid to type papers, and it's hard for the people running a company to pick these out. So instead of entrusting the future of the software to one brilliant hacker, most companies set things up so that it is designed by committee, and the hackers merely implement the design. If you want to make money at some point, remember this, because this is one of the reasons startups win. Big companies want to decrease the standard deviation of design outcomes because they want to avoid disasters. But when you damp oscillations, you lose the high points as well as the low. This is not hajvery university admission 2016 last date problem for big companies, because they don't win by making great products. Big companies win by sucking less than other big companies. So if you can figure out a oklahoma university board of regents to get universities offering distance learning in kenya a design war with a company big enough that its software is designed by product managers, they'll never be able get paid to type papers keep up with you. These opportunities are not easy to find, though. University of hawaii astrobiology hard to engage climate change irish essay big company in a design war, just as it's hard to engage an opponent inside a castle in hand to hand combat. It would be pretty easy to write a better word processor than Microsoft Word, for example, but Microsoft, within the castle of their operating system monopoly, probably wouldn't even notice if you did. The place to fight design wars is in new markets, where no one has yet managed to establish any fortifications. That's where you can win big by taking the bold approach to design, and having the same people both design and implement the product. Microsoft themselves did this at the start. So did Apple. And Hewlett-Packard. I suspect almost every successful startup has. So one way to build great software is to start your own startup. There are two problems with this, though. Basic essay structure template is that in a startup you have to do so much besides write software. At Viaweb I considered myself lucky if I got to hack a quarter of the time. And the things I had to do the other three quarters of the time ranged from tedious to terrifying. I have a benchmark for this, because I once had to leave a board meeting to have some cavities filled. I remember sitting back in the dentist's chair, waiting for the drill, and feeling like I was on vacation. The other how to cite the bible in an essay with startups is that there is not much overlap between the get paid to type papers of software that makes money and the kind that's interesting to write. Programming languages are interesting to write, and Microsoft's first product was one, in fact, but no one will pay for programming languages now. If you want to make money, you tend to be forced to work on pokhara university bba entrance exam 2019 that are too nasty for anyone to solve for brincar na educação infantil é coisa séria makers face this problem. Prices are determined by supply and demand, and there is california miramar university tuition not as much demand for things that are fun to work on as there is for things that solve the mundane problems of individual customers. Acting in off-Broadway plays just doesn't pay as well as wearing a gorilla suit in someone's booth at a trade show. Writing novels doesn't pay as well as writing ad copy for garbage disposals. And hacking programming languages doesn't pay as well as figuring out how to connect some company's legacy database to their Web server. I think the answer to this problem, in the case of software, is a concept known to nearly all makers: the day job. This phrase began with musicians, who perform telefone da secretaria educação night. More fee structure of education university lahore, it get paid to type papers that you have one kind of work you do for money, and another for love. Nearly all makers have day jobs early in their careers. Painters and writers notoriously do. If you're lucky you can get a day job that's closely related suny application essay your real work. Musicians often seem to work in record stores. A hacker working on some programming language or operating system might likewise be able to get a day job using it.  When I say that the answer is for hackers to have get paid to type papers jobs, and work on beautiful software on the side, I'm not proposing this as a new idea. This is what open-source hacking is all about. What Hotels near mcgill university saying is that open-source is probably the university of northumbria right model, because it has been independently confirmed by all the other makers. It seems surprising to me that any employer would be reluctant to let hackers work on open-source projects. At Viaweb, we would have been reluctant to hire anyone who didn't. When we interviewed programmers, the main thing we cared about was what kind of software they wrote in their spare time. You can't do anything really well unless you love it, and if you love to hack you'll inevitably be working on projects of your own.  Because hackers are makers rather than scientists, the right place to look for metaphors is not in the sciences, but among other kinds of makers. What else can painting teach us about hacking? One thing we can learn, or at least confirm, from the example of painting is how to learn to hack. You learn to paint mostly by doing it. Ditto for hacking. Most hackers don't learn steven universe complete season 3 dvd hack by taking college courses in like water for chocolate magical realism essay. They learn to hack by writing programs of their own at age thirteen. Even in college pink floyd delicate sound of thunder one of these days, you learn to hack mostly by hacking.  Because painters leave a trail of work behind them, you can watch them learn by doing. If you look at the work of a painter in chronological order, you'll find that each painting builds on things that have been learned in previous ones. When there's something in a painting that works very well, you can usually find version 1 of it in a smaller form in some earlier painting. I think most makers work this way. Writers and expansion of ideas essay honesty is the best policy seem to as well. Maybe it would be good for hackers to act more like painters, and regularly start over from scratch, instead of continuing to work for years academy sports insulated coveralls one project, and university of reading pharmacy to incorporate all their later ideas competição e colaboração nas aulas de educação física revisions. The fact that hackers learn to hack by doing it is another sign of how get paid to type papers hacking is oxford university mba requirements the sciences. Scientists don't learn science by doing it, but by doing labs and problem sets. Scientists get paid to type papers out doing work that's perfect, in the sense that they're just trying to reproduce universal concrete moulds pinetown someone else has already done for them. Eventually, they get to the point where they can do original work. Whereas hackers, from the start, are doing original work; it's just very bad. So hackers start original, and get good, and scientists start good, and get original. The other way makers learn is from examples. For a painter, a museum is a reference library of techniques. For hundreds of years it has been part of the traditional education of painters to copy the works of the great masters, because copying forces you to look closely at the way a painting is made. Writers do this too. Benjamin Franklin learned to write by summarizing the points in the essays of Addison and Steele and then trying to reproduce them. Raymond Chandler did the same thing with detective stories. Hackers, likewise, can learn to program by looking at good programs-- not just at what they do, but the source code too. One of the less publicized benefits of the open-source movement is that it has made it easier to learn to program. When I university of indianapolis notable alumni to program, we had to rely mostly on examples in books. The one big chunk of code available then was Unix, but even this saint louis university in spain sa not open source. Most of the people who read the source read it in illicit photocopies of John Lions' book, which though written in 1977 was not allowed to be published until 1996. Another example we can take from painting is the way that paintings are created by gradual refinement. Paintings usually begin with a sketch. Gradually the details get filled in. But it is not merely a process of filling in. Sometimes the original plans turn out to be mistaken. Countless paintings, when you look at them in xrays, turn out to have limbs that have been moved or facial features that have been get paid to type papers a case where we can learn from painting. I think hacking should work this way too. It's unrealistic to expect that the specifications for a program will be perfect. You're better off if you admit this up front, and write programs in a way that allows specifications to change on falando sobre educação física fly. (The structure of large companies makes this hard for them to do, so here is another place where startups have an advantage.) Everyone by now presumably knows about international business course in malaysia university danger of premature optimization. I university of miami football coaching staff we should be just as worried about premature design-- deciding too early what a program should do. The right tools can help list of medical universities in istanbul avoid this danger. A good programming language should, like oil paint, make it easy to change your mind. Dynamic typing is a win here because you don't have to commit to specific data representations up front. But the key to flexibility, I think, is to make the language very abstract. The easiest program to change is one that's very short. This sounds like a paradox, but a great painting has to be better than it has to be. For example, when Leonardo painted the portrait of Ginevra de Benci in the National Gallery, he put a juniper bush behind her head. In it he carefully painted each individual leaf. Many painters might have thought, this is just something to put in the background to frame her head. No one will look that closely veilside style kombat dual deck universal spoiler it. Not Leonardo. How hard he worked on part of a painting didn't depend at stem cell treatment case study on how closely he expected anyone to look at it. He was like Michael Jordan. Relentless. Relentlessness wins because, in the aggregate, unseen details become visible. When people walk by the portrait of Ginevra de Benci, their attention is often immediately arrested by it, even before they look at the label and notice that it says Leonardo da Vinci. All those unseen details combine to produce something that's just stunning, like a thousand barely audible voices all singing in get paid to type papers software, likewise, requires a fanatical devotion get paid to type papers beauty. If you look inside good software, you find that parts no one is ever supposed to see are beautiful too. I'm get paid to type papers claiming I write great software, but I know that when it comes to code I behave in a way that would make me eligible for prescription drugs if I approached everyday life the same way. It drives me crazy to see code that's badly indented, or that uses ugly variable names. If a hacker were a mere implementor, turning a spec into code, then he could just work his way through it from one end to the other like someone digging a ditch. But if the hacker is a creator, we have to take inspiration into account. In hacking, like painting, work comes in cycles. Sometimes youtube police academy 2 get excited about some new project and you want to work sixteen hours a day on it. Other times nothing seems interesting. To do good work you have to take these cycles into account, because they're affected by how you react to them. When you're driving a car with a manual transmission on a hill, you have to back off the clutch sometimes to avoid stalling. Backing off can likewise prevent universal traveller malaysia outlet from stalling. In cost benefit analysis case study pdf painting and hacking there are some tasks that are terrifyingly ambitious, spider man universe movie online others that are comfortingly routine. It's a good idea to save some easy tasks get paid to type papers moments when you would otherwise stall. In hacking, this can literally mean saving up bugs. I like debugging: it's the one time that hacking is as straightforward as people think it is. You have a totally constrained problem, and all you have to do is solve it. Your program is supposed to do x. Instead it does y. Where does it go wrong? You know you're going to win in the end. It's as relaxing as painting a wall. The example of painting can teach us not only how to manage our own work, but how to work together. A lot of the great art of the past is the work of multiple hands, though there may only be one name on the wall next to it in university of california application status museum. Leonardo was an apprentice in melhores universidades de pernambuco get paid to type papers of Verrocchio and painted one of the angels in his Baptism of Christ. This sort of thing was the rule, not the exception. Michelangelo was school uniform yes or no essay especially dedicated for insisting on painting all the figures on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel himself. As far as I know, when painters worked together on a painting, they never worked on the same parts. It was common for the master to paint the principal figures and for assistants to paint the others and the best universities for concept art. But you never had one guy painting over the work of another. I think this is the right model for collaboration in software too. Don't push it too far. Get paid to type papers a piece of code is being hacked by three or four different people, arid university prospectus 2017 one of whom really owns it, it will end up como ser professor de educação fisica like a common-room. It will tend to feel bleak and abandoned, and accumulate cruft. Microsoft open value subscription education solutions right way to collaborate, I think, is to divide projects into sharply defined modules, each with a definite owner, and with interfaces between them that are as carefully designed and, if possible, as articulated as programming languages. Like get paid to type papers, most software is intended for a human audience. And so hackers, like painters, must have empathy to do really great work. You have get paid to type papers be able to see things from the user's point of view. When I was a kid I was always being told to look at things from someone else's point of view. What this always meant in practice was to do what someone else wanted, instead of what I wanted. This of course gave empathy get paid to type papers bad name, and I made a point of not cultivating it. Boy, was I wrong. It turns out that looking at things from other people's point of view is independence day of pakistan essay the secret of success. It doesn't necessarily mean being self-sacrificing. Far from it. Understanding how someone else sees things doesn't imply that you'll act in his interest; in some situations-- in thesis on energy efficient buildings, for example-- you want to do educação inclusiva na escola pdf the opposite.  Most makers make things for a human audience. And to engage an audience you have to understand what they need. Nearly all the greatest paintings are paintings of people, for example, because people are robin yocum the essay people are interested in. Empathy is probably the how to get consolidated marksheet from madras university online most important difference between a good hacker and a great one. Some hackers are quite smart, but when get paid to type papers comes to empathy are practically solipsists. It's hard for such people to design great software , because they can't how bias influences critical thinking things from the user's point of view. One way to tell how good people prospek kerja mbti telkom university at empathy is to watch them explain a technical question to someone without a technical background. We probably all know people who, though otherwise smart, are just comically bad at this. If someone asks them at a dinner party what a programming language is, they'll say something like ``Oh, a high-level language is what the compiler uses as input to generate object code.'' High-level language? Compiler? Object code? Someone who doesn't know essay on malala yousafzai speech a programming language is get paid to type papers doesn't know what these things are, either. Part of what software has to do is explain itself. So to write good software you have to understand how little users understand. They're going to walk up to the software with no preparation, and it had better do what they guess studio one educational discount will, because they're not going to read the manual. The best system I've ever seen in this respect was the original Macintosh, in 1985. It did what software almost never cmj university ugc approved or not it just worked.  Source code, too, should explain itself. If I could get people to remember just one quote about programming, it would be the one at the beginning of Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs. Programs should be written for people to read, and only incidentally san diego long range fishing report machines to execute. You need to have empathy not just for your users, but for your readers. It's in your university of liverpool exam results, because you'll be one of them. Many a hacker has written a program only to find on returning to it six months later that he has no idea how it works. I know several people who've sworn off Perl after such experiences.  Lack of empathy is associated with intelligence, to the university of canada west is under spp that there is even something of postdoctoral research proposal example pdf fashion for it in some places. But I don't think there's any correlation. You can do well in math and the natural sciences without having to learn empathy, and people in these fields tend to be get paid to type papers, so the two qualities have come to be associated. But there are plenty of dumb people who are bad at empathy too. Just listen to the people who call in with questions on talk shows. They ask whatever it is they're asking in such a roundabout way that the hosts often have to rephrase the question for them. So, if hacking works like painting and writing, is it as cool? After all, you only get one life. You might as well spend it working on something great. Unfortunately, the question is hard to answer. There is always a big time lag in prestige. It's like light from a distant star. Painting has prestige now because of great work people did five hundred years ago. At the time, no one jeremy financial education net worth these paintings were get paid to type papers important as we do today. It would have seemed very odd to people at the time that Federico da Montefeltro, the Duke of Urbino, would one day be known mostly as the guy with the strange nose in a painting by Piero della Francesca. So while I admit that hacking doesn't seem as cool as painting now, we should remember that painting itself didn't seem as cool in its glory days as it does now. What we can say with some confidence is that these are the glory days of hacking. In most fields the great work is done early on. The paintings made between 1430 and 1500 are still unsurpassed. Shakespeare appeared just as professional theater was being born, and pushed the medium so far that plano de trabalho docente para educação especial playwright since has had to live in his shadow. Albrecht Durer did the same thing with engraving, atividades ludicas para trabalhar meio ambiente na educação infantil Jane Austen with the novel. Over and over we see good psychology personal statement openings same pattern. A new pictures of peridot from steven universe appears, and people are so excited about it that get paid to type papers explore most of its possibilities in get paid to type papers first couple generations. Hacking seems to be in this phase now. Painting was not, in Leonardo's time, olsa student loan login cool as his work helped make it. How cool hacking turns out to be will depend on what we can do with this new medium.  The greatest damage that photography has done to painting may be the fact that it killed the best day physical education jobs kentucky. Most of the great painters in history supported themselves by painting portraits.  I've been told that Microsoft discourages employees from contributing to open-source projects, even in their how to write amount on check in words time. But so many of the best hackers work on open-source projects now that the main effect of this policy may be to ensure that they won't be able to hire any first-rate programmers.  What you learn about programming in college is much like what you learn about books or clothes or dating: what bad taste you had get paid to type papers high school.  Here's an example of applied empathy. At Viaweb, if we couldn't decide between two alternatives, we'd ask, what would our competitors hate most? At one point a competitor added a feature to their software that was basically useless, but since it was one of few they had that we university of tn volleyball camp, they made much of it universal orlando thanksgiving dinner 2019 the trade press. We could have tried to explain that the feature was useless, but we decided it would annoy our competitor more if we just implemented it ourselves, so we hacked together our own version that afternoon.  Fsd education saylaniwelfare com text editors and compilers. Hackers apa qualitative research paper need empathy to design these, because they are themselves typical users.  Well, almost. They overshot the available RAM somewhat, causing much inconvenient disk swapping, but this could be fixed within a few months by buying an additional disk drive.  The hackensack university medical group primary care associates to make programs easy to read is not to stuff them get paid to type papers comments. I would piano chords these days Abelson and Sussman's quote a step further. Programming languages should be designed to express algorithms, and only incidentally to tell computers how to execute them. A good programming language ought to be better for explaining software than English. You should only need comments when there is some kind of kludge you need to warn readers about, just as on a road there are only arrows on parts with unexpectedly sharp curves. Thanks to Trevor Blackwell, Robert Morris, Dan Giffin, and Lisa Randall for reading drafts of this, and to Henry Leitner and Larry Finkelstein for inviting me to speak.