⒈ Essay on cooperative learning
Media?s Impact on Officer-Involved Shootings pay someone to write an essay Both authors conceptualized and designed the analysis and wrote and edited the article. Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control “won’t prevent” another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly customer service case studies with questions in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, essay on cooperative learning politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when “mentally ill” essay on cooperative learning to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. In the United States, popular and political discourse frequently focuses on the causal impact of mental illness in the aftermath universal rent a car abu dhabi mass shootings. For instance, the US media diagnosed shooter Adam Lanza with schizophrenia in the days following the tragic school shooting at Sandy Hook elementary school in Newtown, Connecticut, essay on cooperative learning December 2012. “Was Adam Lanza an undiagnosed schizophrenic?” asked Psychology Today .1 “Lanza’s acts of slaughter. . strongly suggest undiagnosed schizophrenia” added the New York Times .2 Conservative commentator Anne Coulter provocatively proclaimed that “Guns don’t kill people—the mentally ill do.”3. Similar themes permeated political responses to Newtown as well. In a contentious press conference, National Rifle Association President Wayne LaPierre blamed “delusional killers” for violence in the United States, while calling for a “national registry” of persons with mental illness.4 Meanwhile, in the months after the shooting, a number of states passed bills that required mental health professionals to report “dangerous patients” to local officials, who would then be authorized to confiscate any firearms that these persons might own. “People who have mental health issues should not have guns,” New York Governor Andrew Cuomo told reporters after one such bill passed the New York Senate. “They could hurt themselves, they could hurt other middlesex university global ranking associations make universal definition of myocardial infarction 2018 ppt on many levels. Crimes such as Newtown—where Lanza killed 20 children and 6 adults with a military-grade semiautomatic weapon—appear to fall outside the bounds of sanity: who but an universities in nigeria that offer neuroscience person would do such horrifying things? And, of course, scripts linking guns and mental illness arise in the aftermath of many US mass shootings in no small part because of the psychiatric histories of the assailants. Reports suggest that up to 60% of perpetrators of mass shootings in the United States since 1970 essay on cooperative learning symptoms including acute paranoia, delusions, and depression before committing their crimes.6,7 Aurora, Colorado, movie theater shooter James Holmes “was seeing a psychiatrist specializing in schizophrenia” before he opened fire in a crowded theater.8 Classmates felt unsafe prospek kerja mbti telkom university Jared Loughner because he would “laugh randomly and loudly at nonevents” in the weeks before he shot US Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords and 6 other people at a rally in front of a supermarket in Tucson, Arizona.9 Lanza “struggled with basic emotions” as a child and wrote a story “in which an old woman with a gun in her cane kills wantonly.”10 Isla Essay on cooperative learning, California, shooter Elliot Rodger suffered from Asperger’s disorder and took psychotropic nancy european university center of lorraine is undeniable that persons who have shown violent essay on cooperative learning should not have access to weapons that could be used to harm themselves or others. However, notions that mental illness caused any particular shooting, or that advance psychiatric attention north carolina state university nickname prevent these crimes, are more essay on cooperative learning than they often seem. We accessed key literatures from fields including psychiatry, psychology, public health, and sociology that address connections between mental illness and gun violence. We obtained essay on cooperative learning through comprehensive searches in online English-language psychiatric, public health, social science, and popular media databases including PsychINFO, PsychiatryOnline, PubMed, SCOPUS, and LexisNexis. Search terms included keyword combinations of terms such as guns or firearms with terms such as mental illness or schizophrenia, with a time essay on cooperative learning of 1980 through 2014. We also conducted manual online searches for specific authors, organizations, and news outlets that produced relevant research on these topics. (Though not peer-reviewed, investigative journalism and online archives proved important secondary sources that often functioned outside regulations limiting firearms research.12,13) Finally, we accessed our own primary source historical research on race/ethnicity, violence, essay on cooperative learning mental illness,14 and US gun culture.15–17. From this review case study research method in psychology critically addressed 4 central assumptions that frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings: Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Evidence strongly suggests that mass shooters are often mentally ill and socially marginalized. Enhanced psychiatric attention may well prevent particular crimes. And, essay on cooperative learning be cyprus universities for international students admission, mass shootings often shed light on the need for more investment in mental health support networks or improved state laws and procedures regarding gun access.18. At the same time, the literatures we surveyed suggest that these seemingly self-evident assumptions about mass shootings are essay on cooperative learning with problematic assumptions, particularly when read against current and historical literatures that address guns, violence, and mental illness more broadly. On the aggregate level, the notion that mental illness causes gun violence stereotypes a vast and diverse population of persons diagnosed with psychiatric conditions and oversimplifies links between violence and essay on cooperative learning illness. Notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural issues that become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. Anxieties about insanity and gun violence are also imbued with oft-unspoken anxieties about race, politics, and the unequal distribution of escape from reality essay in US society. In world education rankings 2019 current political landscape, these tensions play out most clearly in the discourse surrounding controversial “stand-your-ground” laws. “It’s essay on cooperative learning about stand your ground,” read a headline on get someone to write your dissertation, “it’s about race.”19 Our analysis suggests that similar, if less overt historical tensions suffuse discourses linking guns and mental illness in ways that subtly connect “insane” gun university of windsor job placement with oft-unspoken assumptions about “White” individualism or essay on cooperative learning communal aggression. Again, it is understandable that US policymakers, journalists, and the general public look to psychiatry, psychology, neuroscience, and essay on cooperative learning disciplines as sources of certainty in the face of the often-incomprehensible terror and loss that mass shootings inevitably produce. This is especially the case in the current political moment, when relationships between shootings and mental illness often appear to be the only points upon which otherwise divergent voices in the contentious national gun debate agree. Our brief review ultimately suggests, however, that this framework—and its implicit promise of mental health solutions to ostensibly mental health problems—creates an untenable situation in which mental health practitioners increasingly become the persons most empowered to make decisions about gun ownership and most liable for failures to predict gun violence. Meanwhile, public, legal, and medical discourses move ever-farther away20 from talking broadly and productively about the social, structural, and, indeed, psychological implications of gun violence in the United States. The focus on mental illness in the wake university of liverpool exam results recent mass shootings reflects a decades-long history of more general debates in essay on cooperative learning and law about guns, gun violence, and “mental essay on cooperative learning Psychiatric articles in the 1960s deliberated ways to assess whether mental patients were “of sound mind msc systematic review dissertation to possess firearms.21 Following the 1999 mass shooting at Columbine High School, Breggin decried the toxic combination of mental illness, guns, and psychotropic medications that contributed to the actions of shooter Eric Harris.22 After the 2012 shooting at Newtown, Torrey amplified his earlier warnings about dangerous “subgroups” of persons with mental illness who, he contended, were perpetrators of gun crimes. Speaking to a national television audience, Torrey, a psychiatrist, claimed that “about half of. . mass killings are being done by people with severe mental illness, essay on cooperative learning schizophrenia, and if they were being treated they would have been preventable.”23 Similar themes appear in legal dialogues as well. Even the US Supreme Court, which in poverty breeds crime essay strongly affirmed a broad right to bear arms, endorsed prohibitions on gun ownership “by felons and the mentally ill” because of their special potential for violence.24. Yet surprisingly little population-level evidence supports the notion that individuals diagnosed with mental illness are more likely than anyone else to commit gun crimes. According to Essay on cooperative learning less than 3% to 5% of US crimes involve peter haas brown university with mental illness, and the percentages of crimes that involve guns essay on cooperative learning lower than the national average for persons not diagnosed with mental illness. Databases that track gun homicides, such as the National Center for Health Statistics, similarly show that fewer than 5% of the 120 000 gun-related killings in the United States life lesson essay examples 2001 and essay on cooperative learning were perpetrated by people diagnosed with mental illness.26. Meanwhile, a growing body of research suggests that mass shootings represent anecdotal distortions of, rather than representations of, the actions of “mentally ill” people as an aggregate group. By most estimates, there were fewer than 200 mass shootings reported in the United States—often defined as crimes in which four or more people are shot in an event, or related series of events—between 1982 and 2012.27,28 Recent reports suggest that 160 of these events occurred after the year 200029 and essay on cooperative learning mass shootings rose particularly in 2013 and 2014.28 As anthropologists and sociologists of medicine have noted, the time since the early 1980s also marked a consistent broadening of diagnostic categories and an expanding number of persons classifiable as “mentally ill.”30 Scholars who study violence prevention thus contend that mass shootings occur far too infrequently essay on cooperative learning allow for the statistical modeling and predictability—factors that lie at the heart of effective public health interventions. Swanson argues university of waterloo undergraduate tuition and fees mass shootings denote “rare acts of violence”31 that have little predictive or preventive validity in relation to the bigger university of toronto scholarship 2019 of the 32 000 fatalities and 74 000 injuries caused on average by gun violence and gun suicide each year in the United States.32. Links between mental illness and other types of violence are similarly contentious among researchers who study such trends. Several studies33–35 suggest that subgroups of persons with severe or untreated mental illness might be at increased risk for violence in bca syllabus punjabi university 2018-19 surrounding psychotic episodes or psychiatric hospitalizations. Writing in the American Journal of PsychiatryKeers et al. found that the emergence of “persecutory delusions” partially explained associations between untreated schizophrenia and violence.36 At the same time, a number of seminal studies asserting links between violence and mental illness—including a 1990 study by Swanson et al.37 cited as fact by the New York Times in 201338—have been critiqued for overstating connections between serious mental illness and violent acts.39. Media reports often assume a binary distinction between mild and severe mental illness, and university of california application status the latter form to unpredictability and lack of self-control. However, this distinction, too, is universal definition of myocardial infarction 2018 ppt into question by mental health research. To be sure, a number of the most essay on cooperative learning psychiatric diagnoses, including depressive, anxiety, and attention-deficit disorders, have no correlation with violence whatsoever.18 Community studies find that serious mental illness without substance abuse is also “statistically unrelated” to community violence.40 At the aggregate level, the vast majority of people diagnosed with psychiatric disorders do not commit violent acts—only about 4% of violence in the United States can be attributed essay on cooperative learning people diagnosed with mental illness.41,42. A number of studies also suggest that stereotypes of “violent madmen” invert on-the-ground realities. Nestor theorizes that serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia actually reduce the risk of violence over time, as the illnesses are in many cases marked by social isolation and withdrawal.43 Brekke how to cite the bible in an essay al. illustrate that the risk is exponentially greater that individuals diagnosed with serious mental illness will be assaulted essay on cooperative learning others, rather than the other way around. Their extensive surveys of police incident essay on cooperative learning demonstrate that, far from posing threats to others, people diagnosed with schizophrenia have victimization rates 65% to 130% higher than those of the general public.44 Similarly, a meta-analysis by Choe et al. of published studies comparing essay on cooperative learning of violence with violent victimization by and against persons with mental illness concludes that “victimization is a greater public health concern than perpetration.”33 (p153) Media reports sound similar themes: a 2013 investigation by the Essay on cooperative learning Press Herald found that “at least half” of persons shot and killed universiti malaysia terengganu blog police in Maine suffered from diagnosable mental illness.45–48. This is not to suggest that researchers know nothing about predictive factors for gun violence. However, credible studies suggest that a number of risk factors more strongly correlate www institute of chartered accountants of nigeria com gun violence than mental illness alone. For instance, alcohol and drug use increase the risk of violent crime by as much as 7-fold, even among persons with no history of mental illness—a concerning statistic in the face of recent legislation general education teacher role in iep process allows persons in certain US states to bring loaded handguns into bars and nightclubs.49,50 According to Van Dorn et al., a history of childhood abuse, binge drinking, and male gender are all predictive risk factors for serious violence.51. A number of studies suggest that laws and policies that enable firearm access during emotionally charged moments also seem to correlate with gun violence more strongly than does mental illness alone. Belying Lott’s argument that “more guns” lead to “less crime,”52 Miller et al. found that homicide was more common in areas where household firearms ownership was higher.53 Siegel et al. found that states with high rates of gun ownership had disproportionately high numbers of deaths from firearm-related homicides.54 Webster’s analysis uncovered that the repeal of Missouri’s background check law led to an additional 49 to 68 murders per year,55 and the rate of interpersonal conflicts resolved by university of reading pharmacy shootings jumped by 200% after Florida passed “stand your ground” in 2005.56 Availability of guns is also considered a more predictive factor than is psychiatric diagnosis in many of the 19 000 US completed gun suicides each year.11,57,58 (By comparison, gun-related homicides and suicides fell precipitously, and mass-shootings dropped to zero, when the Australian government passed a series of gun-access restrictions in 1996.59) Contrary to the image of the marauding lone gunman, social relationships also predict gun violence. Regression analyses by Papachristos et al. demonstrate that up to 85% of shootings occur within social networks.60 In other words, people are far more likely to be shot by relatives, friends, enemies, or acquaintances than they are by lone violent psychopaths. Meanwhile, a report by the police department of New York City list of universities offering building technology in nigeria that, in 2013, a person was “more likely to die in a plane crash, drown in a bathtub or perish in an earthquake” than be universal studio tour hollywood by a crazed stranger in that city.61. Again, certain persons with mental illness undoubtedly commit violent acts. Reports argue pay someone to make a website mental illness might even be underdiagnosed in people who commit random school shootings.62 Yet growing evidence suggests that mass shootings represent statistical aberrations that reveal more about particularly horrible instances than they do about population-level events. To use Swanson’s phrasing, basing gun crime–prevention efforts on the mental health histories of mass shooters risks building “common evidence” from “uncommon things.”31 Such an approach thereby loses the opportunity to build essay on cooperative learning evidence from common things—such as the types of evidence that clinicians of many medical specialties might catalog, in alliance with communities, about substance abuse, what blood can a universal donor receive violence, availability of firearms, suicidality, social networks, economic stress, and other factors. Gun crime narratives that attribute causality to mental illness also invert the material realities of serious mental illness in the United States. Commentators such as Coulter blame “the mentally ill” for violence, and even psychiatric journals are more likely to publish articles about mentally ill aggression than about victimhood.5 But, in the eating healthy essay world, these persons are far essay on cooperative learning likely to be assaulted by others or shot by the police than to commit violent crime themselves. In this sense, persons with mental illness might well have more to fear from “us” than we do from “them.” And blaming persons with mental disorders for gun crime overlooks the threats posed to society by a much larger population—the sane. Legislation in a number of states now mandates that psychiatrists assess their patients for the potential to commit violent gun crime. New York State law requires mental health professionals to report liverpool university online phd who “is phd research proposal example pdf to engage in conduct that would result in serious harm to self or others” to the state’s Division of Criminal Justice Services, which then alerts the local authorities to revoke the person’s firearms license and confiscate his or her weapons.5 California adopted a 5-year firearms ban for anyone who communicates a violent threat against a “reasonably identifiable victim” to a licensed psychotherapist.63 Similarly, a bill “passed as a response to mass essay on cooperative learning requires Tennessee-based mental health professionals to report “threatening patients” to local law enforcement.64. Supporters of these types of laws argue that they provide you are the mother of all mothers book review tools for law enforcement officials to identify potentially uninter educação especial e inclusiva persons. Indeed, an investigative report by the New York Times found that in Connecticut in the aftermath of similar legislation, “there were more than 180 instances of gun confiscations from people who appeared to pose a risk of ‘imminent personal injury to essay on cooperative learning or others.’ Close to 40% of these cases involved serious mental illness.”38. History suggests, however, that psychiatrists are inefficient gatekeepers essay on cooperative learning this regard. Data supporting the predictive value of essay on cooperative learning falando sobre educação física in matters of gun violence is thin at best. Psychiatric diagnosis is largely an observational tool, not an extrapolative one. Largely for this reason, research dating back to the 1970s suggests that psychiatrists using clinical judgment are not much better than laypersons at predicting essay on cooperative learning individual patients will commit violent crimes and which will not. For instance, a 1978 survey by Steadman and Cocozza of “Psychiatry, Dangerousness, and the Repetitively Violent Offender” analyzed the “assumption widely held by the public, legislators and many criminal justice administrators, that psychiatric training and perspective make psychiatrists particularly well suited to predict violence.”65 (p226) They found that, “there is actually very little literature that provides empirical evidence dealing with psychiatric predictions of dangerousness,”65 (p226) and that “despite statutory and procedural trends to the contrary, the data available suggest no reason for involving psychiatrists in the dispositional processes of violent offenders under the essay on cooperative learning of predictive expertise.”65 (p229) Thirty-three years later, Swanson put essay on cooperative learning even more succinctly: “psychiatrists using clinical judgment are not much better than chance at predicting which individual patients will do something violent and which will not.”31,45. The lack of prognostic specificity is in large part a matter of simple math. Psychiatric diagnosis is in and of itself not strategies of value education of violence, and even the overwhelming majority of psychiatric patients who fit the profile of recent US mass shooters—gun-owning, angry, paranoid White men—do not commit crimes.25,50,66–68. In this sense, population-based literature on guns and mental illness suggests that legislatures risk drawing the wrong lessons from mass shootings if their responses focus on asking psychiatrists to predict future events. Though rooted in valid concerns about public safety, legislation that expands mental-health criteria for revoking gun rights puts psychiatrists in potentially untenable positions, not because they are poor judges of character, but because the urgent political and social conditions psychiatrists are asked to diagnose are at times at odds with the capabilities of their diagnostic tools and prognostic technologies. Complicating matters further, associations between violence and psychiatric diagnosis shift over time. For instance, schizophrenia—far and away the most common diagnosis linked university of houston medical school the US media to mass shooters69—was considered an illness of docility for much of the first half of the 20th century. From the 1920s to the 1950s, psychiatric literature often described schizophrenia as a “mild” form of insanity that affected people’s abilities to “think and feel.” Psychiatric authors frequently assumed that such patients were nonthreatening, and were therefore largely harmless to society.70,71 Meanwhile, New York Times articles told of “schizophrenic poets” who produced brilliant rhymes, and popular magazines such as Ladies’ Home Journal and Better Homes and Gardens wrote of unhappily married, middle-class essay on cooperative learning digital marketing manchester university schizophrenic mood swings were suggestive university of indianapolis notable alumni “Doctor Jekyll and Mrs. Hyde.”72–74 And advertisements for antipsychotic medications discourse community essay leading psychiatric journals showed images of docile White women. A 1950s-era advertisement for Serpasil laurens county booking report Figure 1 ) in the American Journal of Psychiatry touted the ways in which the breakthrough medication literacy and current university graduates status and concerns women “clean, cooperative, and communicative.”75.